**WHAT DETERMINES A UNIVERSE**?

A Universe is a set of photons that interact together, and which do NOT interact, generally, with photons of other universes which have other characteristics. This might better be said to be the spason of the universe that interact determine the characteristics of the universe, but since they determine the properties of the photons. This then amounts to the same thing.

**THREE "CONSTANTS" THAT DETERMINE A UNIVERSE**. C, h and L

There are three independent constants associated with three independent variables that determine to which universe a given "photon" belongs. This should be familiar since we usually select the three arbitrary units of mass, length and time (m,l,t) to express events. Instead of m,l,t we also could just as well elect energy, length, and time, etc. In reality the choice of the three primary variables Interval, mass and charge would be superior to "normal practice" since that system eliminates the fractional half and three halves powers associated with electrical units if m,l,t is chosen as a basis. In any case three units are needed in all systems.

In order to find these three fundamental constants the orthogonal relationship of 1) distance to time, 2) energy to time, and 3) energy to distance (C, h and L) will be selected for the three fundamental constants.

The first of these three characteristics, distance to time, is the speed of light or "C" (or D) of the universe. This is the linear part of the photon motion, the ratio of distance to time in that universe, or the distance change that is determined for each time changes in that universe. There are numerous variables that have been expressed strictly in terms of C, or more properly D and only that variable. So thus the entire set of variables in equations 36 through 40 (x_{b} , T, N_{e} ,N, N_{d}) are dependent. Once D = 1000 p ^{15} is elected as an independent variable these variables are dependent are **not **candidates as possible independent variables.

This could also have been presented as the pure spason or space -time variable which represents the rotary component of the photon motion. This is determined by the number of spasons on the average that the photon pole will encounter as it proceeds in its linear motion above. As the poles reach a "filled" position they are forced to move in the second choice, rotary, or orthogonal direction, and thus this provides the rotary component of the photon motion. In this universe the ratio of the wavelength to the inter- pole distance of l/d= 6p_^{6} = 5768.3.... which is determined by the spason fractional "filling" of the universe. This also determines the mass ratio of proton to electron, M_{p}/m_{e}= 6 p ^{5}, but we may NOT define the mass- only the dimensionless mass ratio from this set of equations.

The second key variable must introduce mass or energy into the system, and is Energy to time. This can be introduced by selecting Planck's constant, h , as the second constant specifying the universe, where

h = 6.626196 x 10 ^{-27} erg sec per cycle (x 10^{-34}^{
}Joule sec per cycle), in the Planck equation E = hf, = h/ t_{p} . The frequency, f, has units of per second and the real time relationship is made clear by using the period of the photon, t_{p} , as the ratio primary defining unit. Thus the second constant is the relationship of energy to time. Since l f = C, and E= hC/l this also could be taken as a distance to energy ratio, but that will be reserved for the third variable below.

The third key variable is best represented by L, given by eq 1 (E= L /d where L = 3.4437__80__
^{_}x 10^{-20}^{
}erg cm [or x 10^{-29}^{
}Joule meters)]) and is a energy to distance relationship. This also could have been represented by the mass density of the universe, r, the mass per unit volume, or the energy density of the universe, or by Hubble's constant, H, (remembering that H^{2} = 4/3 p r G) since these all are inter related by equations and it is possible to take any one of the set as the independent variable while the rest become dependent variables. One and only one of these constants can be used as a free variable to describe (to fix) the properties of the universe, however. The three constants and their equations above: C, h and L have the advantage of clearly being orthogonal, while the confused inter relationships of using H or some of the other variables is not clearly independent.

**BAND WIDTH OF A UNIVERSE**

There is a “band width” to each universe. There are a large number of closely related universes, made up more or less the same way our universe is composed. Any photon which is closely enough related by *all three constants *will be part of an interacting set of photons that will form a "UNIVERSE". All other possible photons belong to some other universe. These constants have a small range of variation allowed in any of the specified variables before the photon is excluded from that universal system. The band width in C is one part in roughly 3 x 10 ^{10} or 3 x 10 ^{-11} [which is the inverse of C (or D)]. The same relative bandwidth apparently occurs in the other two primary constants, so the total variation possible variation is roughly D^{3} or 2.35 x 10 ^{31} universes in the "close set".... a rather large number to say the least.

All this huge number of systems in the close set have five poles to a proton and three poles to an electron etc., -they are made up of models which very closely match our own system, and all still use the circular curvature of p = 3.1415926......as in our universe. In this huge number of universes I would propose that virtually anything imagined in fiction either has happened or will happen. But even worse, there are systems that have p = 4 etc. and other models of particles which create universes not in "the close sheaf". Taking variations of this sort into account the total universes in the expanded sheaf is roughly D^{6} or 5.53972 x 10 ^{62}^{
}a very large number of variations to contend with indeed.

In this expanded sheaf the possible variations certainly exceeds my present imagination to predict all the possible event trains that exist, simply stated, the variations and consequences of those variations are too wild for my presently limited mind to handle.

Note that in our close sheaf of universes, each terrene system has a counterpart Contra-Terrene (CT) system with cognate constants. It is this linked paired universe system that causes some of the peculiarities we observe. The question for example of why there is not equal amounts of matter and anti matter is resolved by saying that the two linked universes which do NOT normally interact (thank heavens!) each contains the balanced quantities of matter and anti- matter.

In this set we may say of our universe:

Matter (electrons moving about protons and neutrons)

The Universe is expanding

Gravity Exists (things tend to cluster into lumps, groups of matter)

Time passes

Red Shift will occur with large distances

Entropy in increasing (things trend to disorder)

There is a positive energy of time flow.

In the CT universe

Anti-matter (positrons moving about anti-protons and anti-neutrons)

The Universe is CONTRACTING

Gravity is "anti-gravity" things tend to distribute to uniformity

Time is reversed from our universe

There is a BLUE shift with large distances

Entropy is decreasing (things tend to more order)

The energy of time flow is negative.

**OPEN and CLOSED OPTIONS** - Convergent and Divergent Choices

In our universe not all choices are open leading to making a different universe, and in fact very few choices are really "open" choices. For example if I hold up a set of keys to my car I have a choice- I can either drop them on the floor or not. If I do not choose to drop them then I will not have to pick them up. If I do drop them I will pick them up and in EITHER case they "converge" and the keys wind up back in my pocket, since I will need them to drive home tonight. I could in theory make more of an open option by choosing to just leave them on the floor, and walk home. The set of choices then causes, or in theory could cause, more and more "disruption" in the universe. By limiting my choices I "healed" the possible differences and the choice branch converged to one universe again with the keys in my pocket and the choice was closed, not an open branch, i.e. not a real choice at all, and the universe converged into one system again.

To invent an open example with larger and larger consequences from a single point decision, if I just let my keys lie, then I could be late - VERY late in fact, as I would have to walk- getting home which could say cause me to miss getting to bed on time, and to continue in an open option a child might not be conceived and born, and that child might in one universe be an "earth shaker" such as Newton or Einstein, ... or Hitler - lets say inventing a way to power star ships, and in the other branch mankind would not invent adequate space (star) ships for lack of this basic theory and eventually fight itself in nuclear wars and die out where in the other option the ability to go to the stars before there was enough population pressure to drive mankind collectively crazy would lead to exploration of the Universe etc. But man loose in the universe could also cause us to start to alter stars and planetary systems for our own purposes, and eventually to alter galaxies and thus even this could effect much of the near space-time continua. Thus what appeared to be a trivial decision could be an open set. On the other hand I know of no decision ever made my anyone that had the any significant effect on MARS to date. Oh we sent a "robot" there, but how significant was that really? It may have had some slightest effect very locally, but if nothing more were ever done to MARS that event will "wash out" with time- and not all that much geologically speaking. It will rust to oblivion or even be buried and fossilized perhaps- but it's total effect on the whole planet is immeasurably small. So in reality every decision so far made by man has not had any measurable effect on the universe as a whole. We MAY have made some open option decisions, JFK's "We will go to the Moon" may have been one of them. MAY. But we need to keep that into a converging series rather than putting our keys back into our pockets, and letting space exploration drop as an option. The inertia of welfareism, and exerting ourselves in the local rather than worldwide / interplanetary options will do just that - lead to a closed option. A very final closed casket option, the end of mankind.

How much free will do we have? The answer is some but not much. I can not affect anything that is about to happen in New York City in the next few seconds, that set of "choices" is outside of my ability to alter events. In fact we have very few events we can alter.

I can type any of many letters right now, but in terms of things that would alter the course of the universe, I have less influence right now than is defined by h, Planck’s constant and h = 6.626.x 10 ^{-27}^{
}in erg seconds per cycle or 6.626x10 ^{-}^{34} in J sec per repeat event. The effects of those choices are removed by the "square of the distance" but maybe amplified linearly with time i.e. the further away we are in distance the less effect we have, but the longer it takes to "work" in time the larger the effect may become. Thus the "free choice" available to us NOW is VERY limited. On the other hand what we do have is very real, and can affect our own lives a lot, those close to us a little, and those remote to us almost none at all. But it CAN have major effect in the future if we act with long range consequences- such as proposing new concepts. Pythagares for example had minor impact at 400 B.C. but his influence is still increasing today.

We live in a "balanced" universe- balanced exactly in gravitational expansion contraction for example, so that we CAN make a choice. If we lived in a "predetermined universe", then no choice would be possible. In our system we neither expand forever (open) nor eventually contract again (closed) but we are balanced exactly within the bandwidth of the universe to where the universe slows and stops expansion without final collapse. The energy - matter and its effects are exactly equal, - allowing choice within the bandwidth h allowed, but no more. Thus physics can answer a philosophical / religious problem. We do have LIMITED free choice.

Note that this is a highly unlikely universe. It is like flipping a coin and having it end up neither heads nor tails but landing on its edge. The larger set of universe (the 10^{62}) includes the pre-determined open and contracting universes. Ours is very much in a minority, one of only (!!ONLY?!!)10^{31} that has “free will” options.

HOW MANY DIMENSIONS ARE THERE IN OUR UNIVERSE?

There are 4 easily observed dimensions: x,y,z and t. In addition there are three orthogonal properties taken above as D, h and L that fixe which universe, for a total of 7 dimensions. Seven is an asymmetric number, thus not satisfactory. Finally there are two properties associated with the Tachyons, which follow for a total of 9 dimensional terms. This seems to be a symmetric and possible answer to the question.